The term \"nervous breakdown\" is sometimes used by people to describe a stressful situation in which they're temporarily unable to function normally in day-to-day life. It's commonly understood to occur when life's demands become physically and emotionally overwhelming. The term was frequently used in the past to cover a variety of mental disorders, but it's no longer used by mental health professionals today.
Nervous breakdown isn't a medical term, nor does it indicate a specific mental illness. But that doesn't mean it's a normal or a healthy response to stress. What some people call a nervous breakdown may indicate an underlying mental health problem that needs attention, such as depression or anxiety.
Signs of a so-called nervous breakdown vary from person to person and depend on the underlying cause. Exactly what constitutes a nervous breakdown also varies from one culture to another. Generally, it's understood to mean that a person is no longer able to function normally. For example, he or she may:
If you feel that you're experiencing a nervous breakdown, get help. If you have a primary care provider, talk to him or her about your signs and symptoms or seek help from a mental health professional.
There has been a breakdown of the medical infrastructure in Venezuela. There are shortages of food, water, electricity, medicine, and medical supplies that have contributed to an increasing humanitarian crisis affecting much of the country. Adequate health care is currently not available through the public health system in Venezuela. For this reason, in addition to crime and civil unrest, the US government has limited ability to provide emergency services to US citizens. Please visit the Department of State Travel Advisory for Venezuela for more information.
The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a continuous endothelial membrane within brain microvessels that has sealed cell-to-cell contacts and is sheathed by mural vascular cells and perivascular astrocyte end-feet. The BBB protects neurons from factors present in the systemic circulation and maintains the highly regulated CNS internal milieu, which is required for proper synaptic and neuronal functioning. BBB disruption allows influx into the brain of neurotoxic blood-derived debris, cells and microbial pathogens and is associated with inflammatory and immune responses, which can initiate multiple pathways of neurodegeneration. This Review discusses neuroimaging studies in the living human brain and post-mortem tissue as well as biomarker studies demonstrating BBB breakdown in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, HIV-1-associated dementia and chronic traumatic encephalopathy. The pathogenic mechanisms by which BBB breakdown leads to neuronal injury, synaptic dysfunction, loss of neuronal connectivity and neurodegeneration are described. The importance of a healthy BBB for therapeutic drug delivery and the adverse effects of disease-initiated, pathological BBB breakdown in relation to brain delivery of neuropharmaceuticals are briefly discussed. Finally, future directions, gaps in the field and opportunities to control the course of neurological diseases by targeting the BBB are presented.
Vascular contributions to cognitive impairment are increasingly recognized1-5 as shown by neuropathological6,7, neuroimaging4,8-11, and cerebrospinal fluid biomarker4,12 studies. Moreover, small vessel disease of the brain has been estimated to contribute to approximately 50% of all dementias worldwide, including those caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD)3,4,13. Vascular changes in AD have been typically attributed to the vasoactive and/or vasculotoxic effects of amyloid-β (Aβ)3,11,14, and more recently tau15. Animal studies suggest that Aβ and tau lead to blood vessel abnormalities and blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown14-16. Although neurovascular dysfunction3,11 and BBB breakdown develop early in AD1,4,5,8-10,12,13, how they relate to changes in the AD classical biomarkers Aβ and tau, which also develop before dementia17, remains unknown. To address this question, we studied brain capillary damage using a novel cerebrospinal fluid biomarker of BBB-associated capillary mural cell pericyte, soluble platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β8,18, and regional BBB permeability using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging8-10. Our data show that individuals with early cognitive dysfunction develop brain capillary damage and BBB breakdown in the hippocampus irrespective of Alzheimer's Aβ and/or tau biomarker changes, suggesting that BBB breakdown is an early biomarker of human cognitive dysfunction independent of Aβ and tau.
It would appear that your reaction to stress, otherwise known in lay terms as a nervous or mental breakdown, is a time-limited condition that is usually brought on by some external event. Features of your reaction to the event are likely some combination of anxiety and depression and lack of an ability to adjust and cope.
Below the chart is a summary table of the information in the report. The summarytable includes a row for each bar on the chart, displays the effective% rates of costs and savings, and provides links to open related report pageswhere you can view the details behind specific cost breakdown report values.
You can select the costs you want to analyze and configure the display of yourcost breakdown report using the Time range and other filters.As you configure the report, your page URL updates to include your selections.Use link Share tocopy the URL to share the report.
The cost breakdown report can show all costs and credits for the entireCloud Billing account, or filtered to focus on a specific set ofresources. By default, when you first access the report, the filters areconfigured to include all values. As you set your filters, the amountsdisplayed in the cost breakdown report adjust to represent the aggregated costsand credits based on the filters selected.
Invoice-level charges are generated when an invoice is issued and are onlydisplayed in the report when you are viewing your costs by invoice month.When you set a usage date time range, the cost breakdown report does notdisplay invoice-level charges. When you set an invoice month time range,the cost breakdown report includes invoice-level charges, if applicableto your Cloud Billing account.
You can bookmark or share the URL of a cost breakdown report you havecustomized. As you configure your cost breakdown report by setting the timerange and filters, your page URL updates to include your selections.
When the leader of an autocratic regime loses power, one of three things happens. The incumbent leadership group is replaced by democratically elected leaders. Someone from the incumbent leadership group replaces him, and the regime persists. Or the incumbent leadership group loses control to a different group that replaces it with a new autocracy. Much scholarship exists on the first kind of transition, but little on transitions from one autocracy to another, though they make up about half of all regime changes. We introduce a new data set that facilitates the investigation of all three kinds of transition. It provides transition information for the 280 autocratic regimes in existence from 1946 to 2010. The data identify how regimes exit power, how much violence occurs during transitions, and whether the regimes that precede and succeed them are autocratic. We explain the data set and show how it differs from currently available data. The new data identify autocratic regime breakdowns regardless of whether the country democratizes, which makes possible the investigation of why the ouster of dictators sometimes leads to democracy but often does not, and many other questions. We present a number of examples to highlight how the new data can be used to explore questions about why dictators start wars and why autocratic breakdown sometimes results in the establishment of a new autocratic regime rather than democratization. We discuss the implications of these findings for the Arab Spring.
Yes. Business equipment insurance may not be your responsibility. But if the equipment breaks down, you could lose productivity, customers & income. Maybe you use leased equipment. Or one of your vendors, like an internet service provider, experiences a service outage. Equipment breakdown insurance covers business income losses in these situations.
We examine a simple relativistic theory of two scalar fields, first discussed by Goldstone, in which as a result of spontaneous breakdown of U(1) symmetry one of the scalar bosons is massless, in conformity with the Goldstone theorem. When the symmetry group of the Lagrangian is extended from global to local U(1) transformations by the introduction of coupling with a vector gauge field, the Goldstone boson becomes the longitudinal state of a massive vector boson whose transverse states are the quanta of the transverse gauge field. A perturbative treatment of the model is developed in which the major features of these phenomena are present in zero order. Transition amplitudes for decay and scattering processes are evaluated in lowest order, and it is shown that they may be obtained more directly from an equivalent Lagrangian in which the original symmetry is no longer manifest. When the system is coupled to other systems in a U(1) invariant Lagrangian, the other systems display an induced symmetry breakdown, associated with a partially conserved current which interacts with itself via the massive vector boson. 59ce067264